2011.03.17 17:43

Tiny RCU.

먼저 Tiny RCU의 성능비교에 대한 언급하고, 그 아래에 RCU의 개념들에 대해 언급합니다.

rcu: "Tiny RCU", The Bloatwatch Edition

This patch is a version of RCU designed for SMP provided for a
small-footprint RCU implementation
.  In particular, the
implementation of synchronize_rcu() is extremely lightweight and
high performance
. It passes rcutorture testing in each of the
four relevant configurations (combinations of NO_HZ and PREEMPT)
on x86.  This saves about 1K bytes compared to old Classic RCU
(which is no longer in mainline), and more than three kilobytes
compared to Hierarchical RCU (updated to 2.6.30):


   text    data     bss     dec     filename
    183       4       0     187     kernel/rcupdate.o
   2783     520      36    3339     kernel/rcutree.o
   3526 Total (vs 4565 for v7)


   text    data     bss     dec     filename
    263       4       0     267     kernel/rcupdate.o
   4594     776      52    5422     kernel/rcutree.o
       5689 Total (6155 for v7)


   text    data     bss     dec     filename
     96       4       0     100     kernel/rcupdate.o
    734      24       0     758     kernel/rcutiny.o
         858 Total (vs 848 for v7)

The above is for x86.  Your mileage may vary on other platforms.
Further compression is possible, but is being procrastinated.

Changes from v7 (http://lkml.org/lkml/2009/10/9/388)

o Apply Lai Jiangshan's review comments (aside from
might_sleep()  in synchronize_sched(), which is covered by SMP builds).

o Fix up expedited primitives.

Changes from v6 (http://lkml.org/lkml/2009/9/23/293).

o Forward ported to put it into the 2.6.33 stream.

o Added lockdep support.

o Make lightweight rcu_barrier.

Changes from v5 (http://lkml.org/lkml/2009/6/23/12).

o Ported to latest pre-2.6.32 merge window kernel.

- Renamed rcu_qsctr_inc() to rcu_sched_qs().
- Renamed rcu_bh_qsctr_inc() to rcu_bh_qs().
- Provided trivial rcu_cpu_notify().
- Provided trivial exit_rcu().
- Provided trivial rcu_needs_cpu().
- Fixed up the rcu_*_enter/exit() functions in linux/hardirq.h.

o Removed the dependence on EMBEDDED, with a view to making
TINY_RCU default for !SMP at some time in the future.

o Added (trivial) support for expedited grace periods.

Changes from v4 (http://lkml.org/lkml/2009/5/2/91) include:

o Squeeze the size down a bit further by removing the
->completed field from struct rcu_ctrlblk.

o This permits synchronize_rcu() to become the empty function.
Previous concerns about rcutorture were unfounded, as
rcutorture correctly handles a constant value from
rcu_batches_completed() and rcu_batches_completed_bh().

Changes from v3 (http://lkml.org/lkml/2009/3/29/221) include:

o Changed rcu_batches_completed(), rcu_batches_completed_bh()
rcu_enter_nohz(), rcu_exit_nohz(), rcu_nmi_enter(), and
rcu_nmi_exit(), to be static inlines, as suggested by David
Howells.  Doing this saves about 100 bytes from rcutiny.o.
(The numbers between v3 and this v4 of the patch are not directly
comparable, since they are against different versions of Linux.)

Changes from v2 (http://lkml.org/lkml/2009/2/3/333) include:

o Fix whitespace issues.

o Change short-circuit "||" operator to instead be "+" in order
to  fix performance bug noted by "kraai" on LWN.


Changes from v1 (http://lkml.org/lkml/2009/1/13/440) include:

o This version depends on EMBEDDED as well as !SMP, as suggested
by Ingo.

o Updated rcu_needs_cpu() to unconditionally return zero,
permitting the CPU to enter dynticks-idle mode at any time.
This works because callbacks can be invoked upon entry to
dynticks-idle mode.

o Paul is now OK with this being included, based on a poll at
the  Kernel Miniconf at linux.conf.au, where about ten people said
that they cared about saving 900 bytes on single-CPU systems.

o Applies to both mainline and tip/core/rcu.


RCU: The Bloatwatch Edition

This article was contributed by Paul McKenney


Read-copy update (RCU) is a synchronization mechanism that was added to the Linux kernel in October of 2002. RCU improves scalability by allowing readers to execute concurrently with writers. In contrast, conventional locking primitives require that readers wait for ongoing writers and vice versa. RCU ensures read coherence by maintaining multiple versions of data structures and ensuring that they are not freed up until all pre-existing read-side critical sections complete. RCU relies on efficient and scalable mechanisms for publishing and reading new versions of an object, and also for deferring the collection of old versions. These mechanisms distribute the work among read and update paths in such a way as to make read paths extremely fast. In some cases (non-preemptable kernels), RCU's read-side primitives have zero overhead. RCU updates can be expensive, so RCU is in general best-suited to read-mostly workloads.

Although Classic RCU's memory footprint has been acceptable, hierarchical RCU has a memory footprint that is considerably larger. I was surprised to find that this additional memory consumption did not greatly concern the embedded Linux people I talked to, but then again, I certainly do not know everyone in the embedded Linux community, and the complexity of both hierarchical RCU, preemptable RCU, and the dynticks interface made the thought of a near-minimal kernel-capable RCU with a classic RCU API more interesting. In addition, a recent show of hands at linux.conf.au indicated that there is still interest in running Linux on small-memory single-CPU systems. Discussions with Josh Triplett identified an attractive optimization for the uniprocessor case, and so “RCU: The Bloatwatch Edition” was born.


  1. Review of RCU Fundamentals
  2. Design of Tiny RCU
  3. Tiny-RCU Code Walkthrough
  4. Testing
  5. Memory Footprint

These sections are followed by concluding remarks and the answers to the Quick Quizzes.

Review of RCU Fundamentals

This section is quite similar to its counterpart in the description of hierarchical RCU. People familiar with RCU semantics may wish to proceed directly to the next section.

In its most basic form, RCU is a way of waiting for things to finish. Of course, there are a great many other ways of waiting for things to finish, including reference counts, reader-writer locks, hashed locks, events, and so on. The great advantage of RCU is that it can wait for each of (say) 20,000 different things without having to explicitly track each and every one of them, and without having to worry about the performance degradation, scalability limitations, complex deadlock scenarios, and memory-leak hazards that are inherent in schemes using explicit tracking.

In RCU's case, the things waited on are called "RCU read-side critical sections". An RCU read-side critical section starts with an rcu_read_lock() primitive, and ends with a corresponding rcu_read_unlock() primitive. RCU read-side critical sections can be nested, and may contain pretty much any code, as long as that code does not explicitly block or sleep. If you abide by these conventions, you can use RCU to wait for pretty much any desired piece of code to complete.

Quick Quiz 1: But what if I need my RCU read-side critical section to sleep and block?

RCU accomplishes this feat by indirectly determining when these other things have finished, as has been described elsewhere for Classic RCU and realtime RCU.

In particular, as shown in the following figure, RCU is a way of waiting for pre-existing RCU read-side critical sections to completely finish, including memory operations executed by those critical sections.

Grace periods extend to contain pre-existing RCU read-side critical

However, note that RCU read-side critical sections that begin after the beginning of a given grace period can and will extend beyond the end of that grace period.

The following section gives a very high-level view of how the Tiny RCU implementation operates.

Design of Tiny RCU

The key restriction that enables a smaller and simpler RCU implementation is CONFIG_SMP=n, which means that any time the sole CPU passes through a quiescent state, a grace period has elapsed. In principle, the scheduler could simply invoke all pending RCU callbacks on each context switch, but in practice it is wise to maintain a degree of isolation between the scheduler and RCU. An arms-length relationship allows RCU callbacks to invoke appropriate scheduler functions (e.g., wake_up()) without potential deadlock issues. Therefore, the RCU core runs in softirq context.

This uniprocessor approach also simplifies the data structure, so that each flavor of RCU (rcu_ctrlblk and rcu_bh_ctrlblk) has the following structure:

  1 struct rcu_ctrlblk {
  2   long completed;
  3   struct rcu_head *rcucblist;
  4   struct rcu_head **donetail;
  5   struct rcu_head **curtail;
  6 };

The ->completed field is required only for the rcu_batches_completed() and rcu_batches_completed_bh() interfaces used by the RCU torture tests. The ->rcucblist field is the header for the list of RCU callbacks (rcu_head structures), the ->donetail field references the next pointer of the last rcu_head structure in the list whose grace period has completed, and the ->curtail field references the next pointer of the last rcu_head structure in the list.

The following figure shows a sample callback list that has two callbacks ready to invoke and a third callback still waiting for a grace period (or, equivalently on a uniprocessor system, for a quiescent state):

Tiny RCU callback list

Quick Quiz 2: But we should be able to simply execute all callbacks at each quiescent state! So why bother with separate ->donetail and ->curtail sublists?

Schematic of Tree RCU A block diagram of tiny RCU appears to the right; see this page for a full-size version.

The blue rectangles in this diagram represent functions making up tiny RCU, the blue rectangles with rounded corners represent data structures within tiny RCU, and the red rectangles represent other parts of the Linux kernel. Solid arrows represent function-call interfaces, while dashed arrows represent indirect invocation. The RCU read-side and list-manipulation primitives are not shown, nor are the interfaces specific to the "rcutorture" test module.

Like classic and hierarchical RCU, tiny RCU's grace-period detection is driven by context switches, the scheduling-clock interrupt (scheduler_tick()), and the idle loop. The scheduling-clock interrupt handler and idle loops contain code as follows:

    if (rcu_pending(cpu))
	rcu_check_callbacks(cpu, 0);

So if rcu_pending() indicates that the RCU core has any work to do, rcu_check_callbacks() is invoked, which in turn checks to see if the CPU is currently in a quiescent state, invoking either or both of rcu_qsctr_inc() and rcu_bh_qsctr_inc() as appropriate. These in turn invoke rcu_qsctr_help(), which, if there are RCU callbacks present, updates the callback lists to indicate that their grace period has elapsed and returns 1 to tell the caller to invoke raise_softirq(). At some later time, rcu_process_callbacks() will be invoked from softirq context, which, via __rcu_process_callbacks(), invokes all callbacks in rcu_ctrlblk and rcu_bh_ctrlblk.

Tiny RCU also interfaces to dynticks, albeit in a slightly different way than do the classic, preemptable, and hierarchical RCU implementations. Because there is but a single CPU, entering dynticks-idle mode is both a quiescent state and a grace period, allowing rcu_qsctr_inc() to directly invoke raise_softirq(). This direct invocation in turn means that rcu_needs_cpu() can simply return zero, since any callbacks are processed on the way into dynticks-idle state.

The call_rcu() and call_rcu_bh() interfaces queue callbacks via the __call_rcu() helper function. The synchronize_rcu() interface is a special case that will be described in the code walkthrough in the next section.

Interestingly enough, the general shape of the above block diagram applies to all RCU implementations. Of course, the processing is more complex in the CONFIG_SMP case, particularly in the __rcu_process_callbacks() area.

Tiny-RCU Code Walkthrough

This code walkthrough starts with tiny RCU's update-side API, then discusses the grace-period machinery, and finally the dynticks interface.

Update-Side API

The code for synchronize_rcu() is as follows:

  1 void synchronize_rcu(void)
  2 {
  3   unsigned long flags;
  5   local_irq_save(flags);
  6   rcu_ctrlblk.completed++;
  7   local_irq_restore(flags);
  8 }

This code merely increments the ->completed field with interrupts disabled. This works because synchronize_rcu() may only be invoked when it is legal to block, in other words, synchronize_rcu() cannot be called from within an RCU read-side critical section. Therefore, anywhere synchronize_rcu() may legally be invoked is guaranteed to be a quiescent state. Because quiescent states are also grace periods on uniprocessor systems, as noted by Josh Triplett, any call to synchronize_rcu() is automatically a grace period.

Quick Quiz 3: If all calls to synchronize_rcu() are automatically grace periods, why isn't synchronize_rcu() simply an empty function?

Quick Quiz 4: If all calls to synchronize_rcu() are automatically grace periods, why doesn't synchronize_rcu() process any pending RCU callbacks?

The following shows the code for the call_rcu() group of functions:

  1 static void __call_rcu(struct rcu_head *head,
  2            void (*func)(struct rcu_head *rcu),
  3            struct rcu_ctrlblk *rcp)
  4 {
  5   unsigned long flags;
  7   head->func = func;
  8   head->next = NULL;
  9   local_irq_save(flags);
 10   *rcp->curtail = head;
 11   rcp->curtail = &head->next;
 12   local_irq_restore(flags);
 13 }
 15 void call_rcu(struct rcu_head *head,
 16         void (*func)(struct rcu_head *rcu))
 17 {
 18   __call_rcu(head, func, &rcu_ctrlblk);
 19 }
 21 void call_rcu_bh(struct rcu_head *head,
 22      void (*func)(struct rcu_head *rcu))
 23 {
 24   __call_rcu(head, func, &rcu_bh_ctrlblk);
 25 }

Lines 1-13 show the code for __call_rcu(), which is a common-code helping function. Lines 7-8 initialize the specified rcu_head structure. Line 9 disables interrupts (and line 12 restores them), so that lines 10-11 can enqueue the callback undisturbed by interrupt handlers that might also invoke call_rcu().

Lines 15-19 and lines 21-25 are simple wrappers implementing call_rcu() (which enqueues the callback to rcu_ctrlblk) and call_rcu_bh() (which enqueues the callback to rcu_bh_ctrlblk), respectively. The callbacks are enqueued to the last segment of the queue, in other words, to the portion still waiting for a grace period to end.

Grace-Period Machinery

The lowest-level grace-period machinery is supplied by the rcu_qsctr_inc() family of interfaces that report passage through a quiescent state. These functions are implemented as follows:

  1 static int rcu_qsctr_help(struct rcu_ctrlblk *rcp)
  2 {
  3   if (rcp->rcucblist != NULL &&
  4       rcp->donetail != rcp->curtail) {
  5     rcp->donetail = rcp->curtail;
  6     return 1;
  7   }
  8   return 0;
  9 }
 11 void rcu_qsctr_inc(int cpu)
 12 {
 13   if (rcu_qsctr_help(&rcu_ctrlblk) ||
 14       rcu_qsctr_help(&rcu_bh_ctrlblk))
 15         raise_softirq(RCU_SOFTIRQ);
 16 }
 18 void rcu_bh_qsctr_inc(int cpu)
 19 {
 20   if (rcu_qsctr_help(&rcu_bh_ctrlblk))
 21         raise_softirq(RCU_SOFTIRQ);
 22 }

Lines 1-9 show rcu_qsctr_help(), which is a common-code helper function for rcu_qsctr_inc() (lines 11-16) and rcu_bh_qsctr_inc() (lines 18-22), which in turn report ``rcu'' and ``rcu_bh'' quiescent states, respectively.

Within rcu_qsctr_help, lines 3-4 check to see if there are any RCU callbacks within the specified rcu_ctrlblk structure that are still waiting for their grace period to complete, and, if so, line 5 updates the pointers so as to mark them as being ready to invoke, and line 6 returns non-zero in order to tell the caller to cause the callback-processing code to start running. Otherwise, line 8 returns zero to tell the caller that it is not necessary to process callbacks.

The rcu_qsctr_inc() function invokes rcu_qsctr_help() twice, once for rcu and once again for rcu_bh, and, if either indicates that callback processing is required, it also invokes raise_softirq(RCU_SOFTIRQ) to cause callback processing to be performed.

Quick Quiz 5: Why not simply directly call rcu_process_callbacks()?

The rcu_bh_qsctr_inc() function invokes rcu_qsctr_help(), but only for rcu_bh. If the return value indicates that callback processing is required, raise_softirq(RCU_SOFTIRQ) is invoked to make this happen.

Dynticks Interface

The tinyrcu dynticks interface is refreshingly simple, because uniprocessor systems need not worry about the dynticks-idle state of the nonexistent other CPUs. The code is as follows:
  1 void rcu_enter_nohz(void)
  2 {
  3   if (--dynticks_nesting == 0)
  4     rcu_qsctr_inc(0);
  5 }
  7 void rcu_exit_nohz(void)
  8 {
  9   dynticks_nesting++;
 10 }
 12 void rcu_irq_enter(void)
 13 {
 14   rcu_exit_nohz();
 15 }
 17 void rcu_irq_exit(void)
 18 {
 19   rcu_enter_nohz();
 20 }
 22 void rcu_nmi_enter(void)
 23 {
 24 }
 26 void rcu_nmi_exit(void)
 27 {
 28 }

The rcu_enter_nohz() function is shown on lines 1-5. Line 3 decrements the dynticks_nesting global variable, and, if the result is zero, the CPU has entered dynticks-idle mode, which is a quiescent state. (The dynticks_nesting global variable is initialized to 1.)

Quick Quiz 6: Why is only rcu_qsctr_inc() invoked? What about rcu_bh_qsctr_inc()?

The rcu_exit_nohz() function is shown on lines 7-10. This function simply increments the dynticks_nesting global variable.

As can be seen on lines 12-20, the rcu_irq_enter() and rcu_irq_exit() functions are simple wrappers around rcu_exit_nohz() and rcu_enter_nohz(), respectively. Please note that entering an interrupt handler exits dynticks-idle mode from an RCU viewpoint, and vice versa. This often-confusing relationship is maintained in the names of these functions.

Lines 22-28 show rcu_nmi_enter() and rcu_nmi_exit(), both of which are empty functions. Because we are running on a uniprocessor, we can safely ignore NMI handlers. The reason this is safe is that there cannot be any quiescent states on this CPU within an NMI handler, and there are no other CPUs to execute concurrent quiescent states.

Finally, the rcu_needs_cpu function (not shown) simply returns non-zero, indicating that RCU is always prepared for a given CPU to go into dynticks-idle mode.


Running the script included in the hierarchical RCU article shows that the CONFIG_NO_HZ kernel config parameter is important, and further investigation identifies the CONFIG_PREEMPT parameter as well.

This results in a nice small set of testing scenarios:


This is a welcome contrast to the situation for hierarchical RCU.

Memory Footprint

Simpler code means smaller memory footprint, as can be seen in the following table:

Memory use
Implementation text data bss total filename
Classic RCU 363 12 24 399 kernel/rcupdate.o
1237 64 124 1425 kernel/rcuclassic.o
1824 Classic RCU Total
Hierarchical RCU 363 12 24 399 kernel/rcupdate.o
2344 240 184 2768 kernel/rcutree.o
3167 Hierarchical RCU Total
Tiny RCU 294 12 24 330 kernel/rcupdate.o
563 36 0 599 kernel/rcutiny.o
929 Tiny RCU Total

Tiny RCU is about twice as small as Classic RCU (almost 900 bytes saved), and more than three times smaller than Hierarchical RCU (more than 2KB saved).


As RCU's capabilities have grown, so has its code size. This Bloatwatch edition of RCU forces this trend in reverse, producing a very small implementation via the !CONFIG_SMP restriction. This implementation also provides a minimal Linux-kernel-capable implementation that may provide a good starting point for people wishing to learn about RCU implementations.


I am grateful to Josh Triplett for the conversation that got this project started, to Ingo Molnar and David Howells for their encouragement to see this through, to Will Schmidt for his help getting this to human-readable state, and to Kathy Bennett for her support of this effort.

This work represents the view of the authors and does not necessarily represent the view of IBM.

Answers to Quick Quizzes

Quick Quiz 1: But what if I need my RCU read-side critical section to sleep and block?

Answer: A special form of RCU called "SRCU" does permit general sleeping in SRCU read-side critical sections. However, it is usually better to rework your RCU read-side critical section to avoid sleeping and blocking. One other exception is preemptable RCU, which allows RCU read-side critical sections to be preempted and to block while acquiring what in non-RT kernels would be spinlocks.

Back to Quick Quiz 1.

Quick Quiz 2: But we should be able to simply execute all callbacks at each quiescent state! Why to we need to separate ->donetail and ->curtail sublists?

Answer: Recall that the callbacks are not invoked directly from the scheduler, but rather from softirq context. It would be illegal to invoke callbacks that were registered after the quiescent state but before softirq commenced execution. Such callbacks could be registered from within irq handlers by invoking call_rcu(), and these irq handlers could be invoked between the time that the quiescent state occurred and the time that the softirq handler started executing.

Back to Quick Quiz 2.

Quick Quiz 3: If all calls to synchronize_rcu() are automatically grace periods, why isn't synchronize_rcu() simply an empty function?

Answer: If synchronize_rcu() were an empty function, then rcutorture would incorrectly conclude that RCU was not working, as it would appear to rcutorture that grace periods were never ending. Furthermore, synchronize_rcu() must at least prevent the compiler from reordering code across the call to synchronize_rcu().

Back to Quick Quiz 3.

Quick Quiz 4: If all calls to synchronize_rcu() are automatically grace periods, why doesn't synchronize_rcu() process any pending RCU callbacks?

Answer: Because there currently appears to be no need to do so, given that callbacks will be processed on the next context switch or the next scheduling-clock interrupt from either user-mode execution or from the idle loop. Should experience demonstrate that these are insufficient, then one approach would be to add a raise_softirq(RCU_SOFTIRQ) statement to synchronize_rcu().

Back to Quick Quiz 4.

Quick Quiz 5: Why not simply directly call rcu_process_callbacks()?

Answer: Deferring execution to the softirq environment disentangles RCU callback invocation from the scheduler, permitting the callbacks to freely invoke things like wake_up(). In addition, for rcu_bh, quiescent states might occur with locks held, and the RCU callbacks might well need to acquire these locks, potentially resulting in deadlock. In both cases, deferring to the softirq environment ensures a clean state for the callback.

Back to Quick Quiz 5.

Quick Quiz 6: Why is only rcu_qsctr_inc() invoked? What about rcu_bh_qsctr_inc()?

Answer: Because rcu_qsctr_inc() includes an implicit rcu_bh_qsctr_inc(), as can be seen from the code in the previous section.

Back to Quick Quiz 6.

(Log in to post comments)

RCU: The Bloatwatch Edition

Posted Mar 19, 2009 3:02 UTC (Thu) by kraai (subscriber, #15664) [Link]

If rcu_qsctr_help(&rcu_ctrlblk) returns 1 when called by rcu_qsctr_inc, rcu_qsctr_help(&rcp_bh_ctrlblk) won't be called and, as a result, if rcu_bh_ctrlblk.donetail != rcu_bh_ctrlblk.curtail, rcu_bh_ctrlblk.donetail won't be updated. Would this cause the bottom-half callbacks to be unnecessarily delayed?

RCU: The Bloatwatch Edition

Posted Mar 19, 2009 16:01 UTC (Thu) by PaulMcKenney (subscriber, #9624) [Link]

Good catch!!! I need to use "+" or "|" in place of the "||". Or did you have something else in mind?

I checked rcuclassic.c and rcutree.c, and they avoid this problem because they simply call rcu_qsctr_inc() and rcu_bh_qsctr_inc() in sequence.

RCU: The Bloatwatch Edition

Posted Mar 28, 2009 19:24 UTC (Sat) by rafdz (guest, #41427) [Link]

Excuse my ignorance. I am somwehat reluctant to learn about RCU technology for the reason that i do not know what exactly is covered by patents and what is not covered. Does anyone know which RCU things are covered by patents and what are the implications of implementing some RCU technology in own proprietary or free code.

RCU and patents

Posted Mar 29, 2009 20:23 UTC (Sun) by PaulMcKenney (subscriber, #9624) [Link]

My understanding is that you are free to use technology derived from IBM's RCU contributions in GPL-licensed free-software projects that use either GPLv2 or later. The most prominent special case of this is of course the Linux kernel.

Obligatory disclaimer: The above is my personal opinion. In particular, I am not a lawyer, nor do I play one on TV.

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Trackback 1 Comment 11
  1. Andlife 2011.08.02 21:47 신고 address edit & del reply

    으아.... 외계어... ㅠㅠ

  2. Ugg Boots Clearance 2011.09.22 12:32 신고 address edit & del reply

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